BIO 220 Midterm Exam Graded Latest
BIO 220 Midterm Exam Graded Latest
BIO 220 Midterm Exam Latest
Interferon production is stimulated by
a. a viral infection.
b. the complement cascade.
c. antigen-presenting cells.
d. degranulation of basophils.
The lining of a capillary is called the
c. pericapillary layer.
d. thoroughfare layer.
e. tunica adventitia.
a. activate antigens.
b. may initiate inflammation and enhance phagocytosis.
c. are proteins produced by T helper cells.
d. are needed for costimulation.
e. have memory.
A blood clot attached to a blood vessel wall is called a(an)
The white pulp of the spleen
a. contains lymphocytes that can stimulate an immune response.
b. filters lymph as it flows through the spleen.
c. destroys defective red blood cells.
d. stimulates immune responses, filter lymph, and destroys defective red blood cells.
What event(s) occur during the QRS complex of an ECG?
a. depolarization of the atria
b. repolarization of the ventricles
c. depolarization of the atria and repolarization of the ventricles
d. depolarization of the ventricles and repolarization of the atria
The highest level of exercise that can be performed without causing a significant change in blood pH is called the
a. Hering-Breuer reflex.
b. aerobic threshold.
c. anaerobic threshold.
d. lactic acid tolerance level.
Most carbon dioxide is transported in the blood
a. in the form of bicarbonate ions.
b. bound to hemoglobin.
c. dissolved in the plasma.
d. by the leukocytes.
e. in the form of carbonic acid.
Regurgitation of blood flow through the aortic semilunar valve would give rise to
a. the first heart sound.
b. the second heart sound.
c. a heart murmur.
d. an extra heart beat.
e. end-systolic volume.
The “pacemaker” of the heart is the
a. right bundle branch.
b. left bundle branch.
c. AV node.
d. SA node.
e. PM node.
In capillary exchange, which of the following statements is true?
a. Most fluid that leaves the arterial end of a capillary reenters the venous end of a capillary.
b. Interstitial fluid normally has a higher osmotic pressure than plasma.
c. Constriction of the precapillary sphincter will increase blood pressure in the capillary.
d. Interstitial protein concentration is normally higher than plasma protein concentration.
e. Most fluid that leaves the arterial end of a capillary enters the lymphatic system.
The two major types of phagocytic cells are
a. neutrophils and monocytes.
b. neutrophils and macrophages.
c. monocytes and macrophages.
d. lymphocytes and monocytes.
e. eosinophils and T cells.
When carbon dioxide levels in the blood increase, the
a. condition is called hypocapnia.
b. pH of the blood increases.
c. blood becomes more acidic.
d. number of hydrogen ions in the blood decreases.
e. blood becomes more alkaline.
Which of the following is associated with the tongue?
b. constrictor muscles
c. papillae and taste buds
d. periodontal ligament
Mr. Huff and Puff is getting ready to blow up a pool float because he can’t find the air pump. He takes a big breath in after exhaling normally. The air he takes in is the
a. inspiratory reserve volume.
b. vital capacity.
c. inspiratory capacity.
d. tidal volume.
What is the function of interstitial cells of the myenteric plexus?
a. chemoreceptors that detect the chemical composition of food
b. production of mucus for lubrication and protection
c. pacemaker cells that promote rhythmic contractions of the smooth muscle
d. release of enzymes for chemical digestion
Which of the following thoracic organs is supplied by a parietal branch of the thoracic aorta?
a. the heart
b. the lungs
c. the esophagus
d. the intercostal muscles
e. the thymus gland
a. is needed to produce hemoglobin.
b. is a plasma coagulation factor.
c. is the binding site for carbon dioxide on the hemoglobin molecule.
d. prevents carbon monoxide from binding to hemoglobin.
e. interferes with the normal function of hemoglobin.
Which of the following most accurately describes how foreign substances can activate complement?
a. Antibodies can bind to foreign antigens and activate complement through the classical pathway.
b. Foreign substances can bind to spontaneously activated C3 and stabilize it.
c. Foreign proteins bind to C1 and activate it.
d. Foreign proteins are phagocytized by macrophages and directly activate complement.
e. Antibodies can bind to foreign antigens and activate complement through the classical pathway and foreign substances can bind to spontaneously activated C3 and stabilize it.
Action potentials pass from one myocardial cell to another through areas of low electrical resistance called
a. gap junctions.
b. fibrous heart rings.
c. electromagnetic discs.
d. sarcolemma sclerotic plaques.
e. tight junctions.
The oral cavity
a. opens into the nasopharynx.
b. directly connects with the esophagus.
c. contains the parotid salivary glands.
d. has boundaries that include the lips, palate and cheeks.
e. is lined with cuboidal epithelium.
Trypsin can activate
Coronary artery disease can diminish myocardial blood flow resulting in the death of myocardial cells. This medical condition is known as a myocardial
What does “D” represent on the diagram?
c. axillary lymph node
d. inguinal lymph node
e. thoracic duct
In the platelet release reaction,
a. factor XII is activated.
b. ADP and thromboxanes stimulate other platelets to become activated.
c. activated platelets are connected by fibrinogen.
d. prostaglandin production is inhibited.
e. platelets convert to fibrin.
A protein that helps to protect the body against viral infections is
An incompetent pulmonary semilunar valve could result in less blood reaching the
b. heart muscle.
c. right ventricle.
e. right atrium.
The nervous system and certain chemicals can cause the construction of a blood vessel. This is known as
a. platelet adhesion.
b. vascular spasm.
The portion of the pharynx that extends from the internal nares to the level of the uvula is the
In comparison to a low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a high density lipoprotein (HDL) contains
a. less lipid.
b. less protein.
c. more cholesterol.
d. more carbohydrate.
e. more amino acids.
The redness and heat seen in an inflamed area are the result of
b. increased blood flow to the area.
c. phagocyte mobilization.
d. production of interferon.
e. a reddish substance released by erythrocytes.
Surfactant facilitates alveolar ventilation by
a. decreasing the surface tension between water molecules on the lining of the alveoli.
b. decreasing thoracic compliance.
c. attracting water to the alveolar surface.
d. increasing the surface area for gas exchange.
e. increases the surface tension between fluid and the alveoli.
The longest vein in the body is the
a. superior vena cava.
b. inferior vena cava.
c. hepatic portal vein.
d. great saphenous vein.
e. femoral vein.
Which blood component is NOT correctly matched with its function?
a. erythrocytes – transport oxygen
b. leukocytes – protect against disease
c. platelets – phagocytize bacteria
d. plasma proteins – maintain blood osmotic pressure; involved in clotting
e. monocytes – become macrophages
Most nutrient absorption occurs in the
a. stomach and esophagus.
b. duodenum and jejunum.
c. ascending colon and cecum.
d. pancreatic duct and gall bladder.
e. ileum and transverse colon.
When erythrocytes are destroyed, which of the following events occurs?
a. Urine output increases.
b. Iron is secreted into the bile.
c. Heme is transported by transferrin to the liver.
d. The globin portion of the molecule is broken down into amino acids.
e. Bile is manufactured by the gall bladder.
On this diagram label pulse point “E”.
a. femoral artery
b. radial artery
c. common carotid artery
d. popliteal artery
e. brachial artery
The lymphatic system plays a role in maintaining fluid balance within the body by
a. adding lymph to GI tract secretions.
b. returning interstitial fluid to the plasma.
c. transporting lymph from tissues to the liver.
d. carrying excess fluid to the kidneys to be excreted.
e. actively absorbing fluid from the blood.
Hormones from the adrenal medulla
a. are released in response to parasympathetic stimulation.
b. cause vasodilation in blood vessels of the skin.
c. decrease the heart rate.
d. cause an increase in stroke volume.
e. are released in response to vagal stimulation.
Tolerance to antigens is induced by
a. blocking costimulation.
b. stimulating interleukin 2 production.
c. preventing suppressor T cell proliferation.
d. promoting the release of cytokines.
e. stimulating helper T cell division.