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NURS 6521 Walden Complete Week Discussions Package

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NURS 6521 Walden Complete Week Discussions Package

NURS6521

NURS 6521 Walden Complete Week Discussions Package

 

 

NURS 6521 Walden Complete Week Discussions Package

NURS 6521 Walden Week 1 Discussion Latest

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

As an advanced practice nurse assisting physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders, it is important to not only understand the impact of disorders on the body, but also the impact of drug treatments on the body. The relationships between drugs and the body can be described by pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, whereas pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the body. When selecting drugs and determining dosages for patients, it is essential to consider individual patient factors that might impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharamcodynamic processes. These patient factors include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior (i.e., diet, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, illicit drug abuse), and/or pathophysiological changes due to disease. In this Discussion, you reflect on a case from your past clinical experiences and consider how a particular patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes altered his or her response to a drug.

To prepare:

Review this week’s media presentation with Dr. Terry Buttaro, as well as Chapter 2 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text, and the Scott article in the Learning Resources. Consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last five years. Select a case from the last five years that involves a patient whose individual differences in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug. When referring to your patient, make sure to use a pseudonym or other false form of identification. This is to ensure the privacy and protection of the patient.

Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease.

Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history in your case study.

With these thoughts in mind:

By Day 3

Post a description of the case you selected. Then, describe factors that might have influenced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patient from the case you selected. Finally, explain details of the personalized plan of care that you would develop based on influencing factors and patient history in your case.

By Day 6

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days by suggesting additional patient factors that might have interfered with the pharmacokinetic and pharmadynamic processes of the patients in their case studies. In addition, suggest how the personal care plan might change if the age of the patient were different and if the patient had a comorbid condition such as renal failure, heart failure, or liver failure.

NURS 6521 Walden Week 2 Discussion Latest

Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs

What type of drug should you prescribe based on your patient’s diagnosis? How much of the drug should the patient receive? How often should the drug be administered? When should the drug not be prescribed? Are there individual patient factors that could create complications when taking the drug? Should you be prescribing drugs to this patient?

These are some of the questions you might consider when selecting a treatment plan for a patient. As an advanced practice nurse prescribing drugs, you are held accountable for people’s lives on a daily basis. Patients and their families will often place trust in you because of your position. With this trust comes power and responsibility, as well as an ethical and legal obligation to “do no harm.” It is important that you are aware of current professional, legal, and ethical standards for advanced practice nurses with prescriptive authority. In this Discussion, you explore ethical and legal implications of scenarios and consider how to appropriately respond.

Scenario 1:

As a nurse practitioner, you prescribe medications for your patients. You make an error when prescribing medication to a 5-year-old patient. Rather than dosing him appropriately, you prescribe a dose suitable for an adult.

Scenario 2:

A friend calls and asks you to prescribe a medication for her. You have this autonomy, but you don’t have your friend’s medical history. You write the prescription anyway.

Scenario 3:

You see another nurse practitioner writing a prescription for her husband who is not a patient of the nurse practitioner. The prescription is for a narcotic. You can’t decide whether or not to report the incident.

Scenario 4:

During your lunch break at the hospital, you read a journal article on pharmacoeconomics. You think of a couple of patients who have recently mentioned their financial difficulties. You wonder if some of the expensive drugs you have prescribed are sufficiently managing the patients’ health conditions and improving their quality of life.

To prepare: Review Chapter 1 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text, as well as articles from the American Nurses Association, Anderson and Townsend, the Drug Enforcement Administration, and Philipsend and Soeken.

Select one of the four scenarios listed above.

Consider the ethical and legal implications of the scenario for all stakeholders involved such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and the patient’s family.

Think about two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your ethically and legally responsible decision-making in this scenario.

With these thoughts in mind:

By Day 3

Post an explanation of the ethical and legal implications of the scenario you selected on all stakeholders involved such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and the patient’s family. Describe two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your decision making in this scenario.

By Day 6

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different scenario than you did, in one or more of the following ways:

Suggest additional ethical and legal implications for all stakeholders in your colleagues’ scenarios.

Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.

Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

NURS 6521 Walden Week 3 Discussion Latest

Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders

As the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women, cardiovascular disorders account for 7 million hospitalizations per year (NCSL, 2012). This is the result of the extensive treatment and care that is often required for patients with these disorders. While the incidences of hospitalizations and death are still high, the mortality rate of cardiovascular disorders has been declining since the 1960s (CDC, 2011). Improved treatment options have contributed to this decline, as well as more knowledge on patient risk factors. As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.

Consider the following:

Case Study 1:

Patient AO has a history of obesity and has recently gained 9 pounds. The patient has been diagnosed with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Drugs currently prescribed include the following:

Atenolol 12.5 mg daily

Doxazosin 8 mg daily

Hydralazine 10 mg qid

Sertraline 25 mg daily

Simvastatin 80 mg daily

Case Study 2:

Patient HM has a history of atrial fibrillation and a transient ischemic attack (TIA). The patient has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and ischemic heart disease. Drugs currently prescribed include the following:

Warfarin 5 mg daily MWF and 2.5 mg daily T, TH, Sat, Sun

Aspirin 81 mg daily

Metformin 1000 mg po bid

Glyburide 10 mg bid

Atenolol 100 mg po daily

Motrin 200 mg 1–3 tablets every 6 hours as needed for pain

Case Study 3:

Patient CB has a history of strokes. The patient has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Drugs currently prescribed include the following:

Glipizide 10 mg po daily

HCTZ 25 mg daily

Atenolol 25 mg po daily

Hydralazine 25 mg qid

Simvastatin 80 mg daily

Verapamil 180 mg CD daily

To prepare:

Review this week’s media presentation on hypertension and hyperlipidemia, as well as Chapters 19 and 20 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text.

Select one of the three case studies, as well as one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.

Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.

Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient.

With these thoughts in mind:

By Day 3

Post an explanation of how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you selected. Then, describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Finally, explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan.

By Day 6

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different case study than you did, in one or more of the following ways:

Provide alternative recommendations for drug treatments.

Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.

Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

NURS 6521 Walden Week 4 Discussion Latest

Pharmacotherapy for Respiratory Disorders

To the untrained ear, most coughs sound the same. However, as you might recall from past clinical experiences, a simple cough can lead to a patient diagnosis of a common cold, pneumonia, or even a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although it can sometimes be challenging to diagnose a patient based on common respiratory symptoms such as congestion, coughing, and wheezing, it is important to be able to distinguish minor differences as even mild symptoms might require intervention with drug treatments. When recommending potential treatment options, advanced practice nurses must consider how individual patient factors might impact the effects of prescribed drugs.

To prepare:

Review Chapter 26 and Chapter 27 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text.

Select and research one of the following respiratory disorders: the common cold, pneumonia, or a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Consider types of drugs that would be prescribed to patients to treat symptoms associated with this disorder.

Select one of the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how this factor might impact effects of prescribed drugs, as well as any measures you might take to help reduce negative side effects.

With these thoughts in mind:

By Day 3

Post a description of the respiratory disorder you selected including types of drugs that would be prescribed to patients to treat associated symptoms. Then, explain how the factor you selected might impact effects of prescribed drugs, as well as any measures you might take to help reduce negative side effects.

By Day 6

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different respiratory disorder than you did. If the disorder you selected is primarily associated with the upper respiratory system, respond to colleagues who selected disorders primarily associated with the lower respiratory system. Provide alternative recommendations for drug treatments.

NURS 6521 Walden Week 5 Discussion Latest

Pharmacotherapy for Neurological Disorders

Neurological disorders, such as headaches, seizure disorders, sleep disorders, depression, and dementia can present several complications for patients of all ages. These disorders affect patients physically and emotionally, impacting judgment, school and/or job performance, and relationships with family and friends. Since these disorders may have drastic effects on patients’ lives, it is important for advanced practice nurses to effectively manage patient care. With patient factors and medical history in mind, it is the advanced practice nurse’s responsibility to manage the diagnosis, treatment, and education of patients with neurological disorders.

To prepare:

Review this week’s media presentation on pharmacology for the nervous system.

Select one of the following neurological disorders: headaches, seizure disorders, sleep disorders, depression, or dementia. Consider the types of drugs that would be prescribed to patients to treat symptoms associated with this disorder.

Select one of the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how this factor might impact the effects of prescribed drugs, as well as any measures you might take to help reduce negative side effects.

With these thoughts in mind:

By Day 3

Post a description of the neurological disorder you selected including types of drugs that would be prescribed to patients to treat associated symptoms. Then, explain how the factor you selected might impact the effects of prescribed drugs, as well as any measures you might take to help reduce negative side effects.

By Day 6

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different neurological disorder than you did. Provide recommendations for alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for treatment and management.

NURS 6521 Walden Week 6 Discussion Latest

Pharmacotherapy for Endocrine and Musculoskeletal Disorders

Patients with endocrine and musculoskeletal disorders often require long-term treatment and care resulting in the need for extensive patient education. By appropriately educating patients, advanced practice nurses can assist patients with the management of their disorders. In clinical settings, patients with endocrine and musculoskeletal disorders typically seek treatment for symptoms that pose problems to their everyday lives as ordinary tasks may become difficult to complete. For instance, patients might have difficulty walking short distances, preparing meals, or even running errands. To reduce these symptoms and additional health risks, it is essential to develop drug therapy plans with individual patient factors in mind.

To prepare:

Select one of the following endocrine or musculoskeletal disorders: thyroid disease, osteoarthritis, rheumatic arthritis, gout, multiple sclerosis, or fibromyalgia. Consider the types of drugs that would be prescribed to patients to treat symptoms associated with this disorder.

Select one of the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how this factor might impact the effects of prescribed drugs, as well as any measures you might take to help reduce negative side effects.

With these thoughts in mind:

By Day 3

Post a description of the endocrine or musculoskeletal disorder you selected including types of drugs that would be prescribed to patients to treat associated symptoms. Then, explain how the factor you selected might impact the effects of prescribed drugs, as well as any measures you might take to help reduce negative side effects.

By Day 6

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different endocrine or musculoskeletal disorder than you did. Provide recommendations for alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for treatment and management.

NURS 6521 Walden Week 7 Discussion Latest

Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

Gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders affect the structure and function of the GI tract. Many of these disorders often have similar symptoms such as abdominal pain, cramping, constipation, nausea, bloating, and fatigue. Since multiple disorders can be tied to the same symptoms, it is important for advanced practice nurses to carefully evaluate patients and prescribe treatment that targets the cause rather than the symptom. Once the underlying cause is identified, an appropriate drug therapy plan can be recommended based on medical history and individual patient factors. In this Discussion, you examine a case study of a patient who presents with symptoms of a possible GI/hepatobiliary disorder, and you design an appropriate drug therapy plan.

Consider the following case study:

Patient HL comes into the clinic with the following symptoms: nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The patient has a history of drug abuse and possible Hepatitis C. HL is currently taking the following prescription drugs:

Synthroid 100 mcg daily

Nifedipine 30 mg daily

Prednisone 10 mg daily

To prepare:

Review this week’s media presentation on pharmacology for the gastrointestinal system.

Review the provided case study. Reflect on the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and drugs currently prescribed.

Think about a possible diagnosis for the patient. Consider whether the patient has a disorder related to the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary system or whether the symptoms are the result of a disorder from another system or other factors such as pregnancy, drugs, or a psychological disorder.

Consider an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.

With these thoughts in mind:

By Day 3

Post an explanation of your diagnosis for the patient including your rationale for the diagnosis. Then, describe an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.

By Day 6

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who diagnosed the patient differently than you did, in one or more of the following ways:

Provide alternative recommendations for drug treatments.

Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.

Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

NURS 6521 Walden Week 8 Discussion Latest

Drug Treatments for HIV/AIDS

While HIV/AIDS is still currently incurable, the prognosis for patients with this infectious disease has improved due to advancements in drug treatments. Consider the case of Kristy Aney. Kristy was diagnosed with HIV in 1992 and was told she would survive, at most, 10 more years. Despite unfavorable odds, Kristy is still alive 20 years later. Since her diagnosis, she has witnessed tremendous improvements in HIV/AIDS treatments which have helped patients live longer with fewer side effects. While she acknowledges that these drug treatments have kept her alive, she fears that improvements in drug therapy have led to more people becoming complacent about the disease (Idaho Statesmen, 2012). In fact, the number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the United States is higher than it has ever been (CDC, 2012). This poses the question: Is there a relationship between drug advancements, societal complacency, and infection?

To prepare:

Review Chapter 48 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text, as well as the Krummenacher et al. and Scourfield articles in the Learning Resources.

Reflect on whether or not the prevalence of HIV cases might be attributed to increased complacency due to more advanced drug treatment options for HIV/AIDS.

Consider how health care professionals can help to change perceptions and make people more aware of the realities of the disease.

Think about strategies to educate HIV positive patients on medication adherence, as well as safe practices to reduce the risk of infecting others.

With these thoughts in mind:

By Day 3

Post an explanation of whether or not you think the prevalence of HIV cases might be attributed to increased complacency due to more advanced drug treatment options.Then, explain how health care professionals can help to change perceptions and increase awareness of the realities of the disease. Finally, describe strategies to educate HIV positive patients on medication adherence, as well as safe practices to reduce the risk of infecting others.

By Day 6

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who provided a different rationale than you did, in one or more of the following ways:

Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.

Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research

NURS 6521 Walden Week 9 Discussion Latest

Pharmacotherapy for Hematologic Disorders

In the 1970s, the average lifespan for patients diagnosed with sickle cell disease was 14 years. Today, the average lifespan has increased to 50 years and beyond (TriHealth, 2012). The patient prognosis for many other hematologic disorders such as hemophilia and cancer continue to improve as well. This can be attributed to advancements in medical care—specifically drug therapy and treatment. When managing drug therapies for patients, it is essential to continuously examine current treatments and evaluate the impact of patient factors on drug effectiveness. To prepare for your role as an advanced practice nurse, you must become familiar with common drug treatments for various hematologic disorders seen in clinical settings.

To prepare:

Select one of the following hematologic disorders: anemia, hemophilia, cancer, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, thrombolytic disorders, or white blood cell disorders. Consider the types of drugs that would be prescribed to patients to treat symptoms associated with this disorder.

Select one of the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how this factor might impact the effects of prescribed drugs, as well as any measures you might take to help reduce negative side effects.

With these thoughts in mind:

By Day 3

Post a description of the hematologic disorder you selected including types of drugs that would be prescribed to patients to treat associated symptoms. Then, explain how the factor you selected might impact the effects of prescribed drugs, as well as any measures you might take to help reduce negative side effects.

By Day 6

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different hematologic disorder than you did. Provide recommendations for alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for treatment and management.

NURS 6521 Walden Week 10 Discussion Latest

Hormone Replacement Therapy

In recent years, hormone replacement therapy has become a controversial issue. When prescribing therapies, advanced practice nurses must weigh the strengths and limitations of the prescribed supplemental hormones. If advanced practice nurses determine that the limitations outweigh the strengths, then they might suggest alternative treatment options such as herbs or other natural remedies, changes in diet, and increase in exercise.

Consider the following scenario:

As an advanced practice nurse at a community health clinic, you often treat female (and sometimes male patients) with hormone deficiencies. One of your patients requests that you prescribe supplemental hormones. This poses the questions:

How will you determine what kind of treatment to suggest?

What patient factors should you consider?

Are supplemental hormones the best option for the patient, or would they benefit from alternative treatments?

To prepare:

Review Chapter 56 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text, as well as the Holloway and Makinen and Huhtaniemi articles in the Learning Resources.

Review the provided scenario and reflect on whether or not you would support hormone replacement therapy.

Locate and review additional articles about research on hormone replacement therapy for women and/or men. Consider the strengths and limitations of hormone replacement therapy.

Based on your research of the strengths and limitations, again reflect on whether or not you would support hormone replacement therapy.

Consider whether you would prescribe supplemental hormones or recommend alternative treatments to patients with hormone deficiencies.

With these thoughts in mind:

By Day 3

Post a description of the strengths and limitations of hormone replacement therapy. Based on these strengths and limitations, explain why you would or why you would not support hormone replacement therapy. Explain whether you would prescribe supplemental hormones or recommend alternative treatments to patients with hormone deficiencies and why.

By Day 6

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who provided a different rationale than you did, in one or more of the following ways:

Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.

Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

NURS 6521 Walden Week 11 Discussion Latest

Off-Label Drug Use in Pediatrics

The unapproved use of approved drugs, also called off-label use, with children is quite common. This is because pediatric dosage guidelines are typically unavailable since very few drugs have been specifically researched and tested with children.

When treating children, prescribers often adjust dosages approved for adults to accommodate a child’s weight. However, children are not just “smaller” adults. Adults and children process and respond to drugs differently in their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Children even respond differently during stages from infancy to adolescence. This poses potential safety concerns when prescribing drugs to pediatric patients. As an advanced practice nurse, you have to be aware of safety implications of the off-label use of drugs with this patient group.

To prepare:

Review the Bazzano et al. and Mayhew articles in the Learning Resources. Reflect on situations in which children should be prescribed drugs for off-label use.

Think about strategies to make the off-label use and dosage of drugs safer for children from infancy to adolescence. Consider specific off-label drugs that you think require extra care and attention when used in pediatrics.

With these thoughts in mind:

By Day 3

Post an explanation of circumstances under which children should be prescribed drugs for off-label use. Then, describe strategies to make the off-label use and dosage of drugs safer for children from infancy to adolescence. Include descriptions and names of off-label drugs that require extra care and attention when used in pediatrics.

By Day 6

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who provided a different rationale than you did, in one or more of the following ways:

Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.

Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.